The clinical signs allow merely a presumptive diagnosis. The suspicion of Teschovirus encephalitis must be reported to the official veterinarian.
Samples from freshly euthanized animals are perfect for diagnostics: whole animals or brain and spinal cord.
National Reference laboratory:
Inst. for Veterinary Disease Control Mödling, AGES
Robert Koch-Gasse 17
2340 Mödling, Austria
A definitive diagnosis is based on the clinical signs and epidemiology, the pathomorphological changes (non-suppurative (encephalo) myelitis, Fig. 1) and on successful detection of pathogens.
Methods for laboratory diagnosis:
- RT-PCR (possibly assisted by sequencing)
- Virus isolation in cell culture
- Serological tests
- Histopathological examination
- Immunohistochemical detection of antigen on tissue section
Interpretation of the results - recommendations for practice:
Appropriate clinical symptoms, corresponding histological CNS alterations ((encephalo)myelitis) and molecular biological pathogen detection (detection of PTV-1) are the basis of the decision of the official veterinarian whether locking and/or culling of infected animals is necessary – this depends on the virulence and/or progressive development of the disease).
In case of detection of other Teschovirus- or enterovirus serotypes (other than PTV-1) the disease often has a mild form, without therapeutic consequences, becausethe disease is not treatable. Animals with severe symptoms must often be euthanized, but also self-healing can occur.
Colienterotoxemia, selenium poisoning or other intoxication, vertebral canal abscessWirbelkanalabszesse, trauma, bacterial meningoencephalitis (encephalitis), Aujeszky's disease, European swine fever, African swine fever.