Salmonella infections can be detected in almost all animal species. Reptiles are particularly susceptible to latent infections with a broad spectrum of serovars.
Salmonellosis in cattle: S. Dublin is adapted to cattle, but other serovars can also cause infections with severe clinical pictures. Calves from the 2nd week of life are most susceptible. The predominant symptoms are diarrhoea, disorder of the general condition or pneumonia, which become milder with increasing age. However, cows can suffer from serious illness with diarrhoea, loss of milk and abortions.
Salmonellosis in pigs: adapted species are S. choleraesuis and S. typhisuis. Non-adapted serovars cause disease less frequently, especially when it comes to diarrhoea. Weaning pigs and young pigs up to 60 kg are affected, the infection usually progresses as a general disease with fever and lung symptoms, less frequently with diarrhoea. Abortions are possible.
Salmonellosis in sheep: S. Abortusovis is strictly adapted to sheep and is one of the most important abortion pathogens. An oral infection or an infection via the mating act is followed by a general septicaemia. A typical symptom is abortion in the 4th or 5th month of pregnancy, in addition there are puerperal complications and general diseases of all age groups. Non-adapted serovars cause latent infections and diarrhoea as well as abortions in sheep.
Salmonellosis in horses: S. Abortusequi is the adapted type; after oral infection or infection via mating, a general infection develops which can lead to abortion in the 4th month of pregnancy. Weak foals are also possible. Mares develop a resilient immunity after abortion. Not adapted serovars can lead to asymptomatic diseases with excretion of the pathogen or mild to severe diseases up to septicaemia.
Salmonellosis in dogs and cats: These animal species have a higher resistance to salmonella, there are no adapted serovars. Latent infections are usually observed, and if other favourable factors for diarrhoea are present, vomiting and fever can also develop.
Salmonellosis in chicken: S. Gallinarum is adapted to chickens, but can also occur in turkeys and some other bird species. Mammals are not susceptible. This serovar occurs in 2 biovars: Biovar pullorum is the causative agent for pullorum disease and causes acute septicaemia in chicks up to the 3rd to 6th week of life. The biovar S. Gallinarum is the cause of the so-called fowl typhoid fever, which occurs mainly in older chickens. Infections with non-adapted types usually do not cause disease in chickens, but cause latent infections. However, these are an important source of food-borne infections and get a lot of attention. The most important serovar in this context in Austria is S. Enteritidis, followed by S. Typhimurium.
Salmonellosis in water fowl: Water fowl are monitored as a potential source of infection for humans longer than chickens, therefore special rules for the consumption of duck eggs have long been in place. Living in stagnant water means that these animals have an increased risk of infection. Disease with diarrhoea and septicaemia are mainly found in young animals (keel disease: backstroke swimming of sick animals).