Chicken typhus, Pullorum disease, Arizonosis

Salmonella gallinarum, Salmonella pullorum, Salmonella arizonae

Changed on: 27.07.2021
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Animal disease categories: D E

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Chicken typhus, pullorum disease and arizonosis are poultry diseases caused by certain bacteria(Salmonella gallinarum causes chicken typhus, Salmonella pullorum causes pullorum disease, Salmonella arizonae causes arizonosis). They can cause high losses in chickens, turkeys and other bird species.

Occurrence

worldwide

Host animals

chickens, turkeys, other bird species

Mode of transmission

The pathogens are introduced into flocks by infected animals and animate and inanimate vectors. The transmission of the pathogens via the hatching egg is of great importance for the spread of the infection.

Incubation period

Chicks infected in the brooder become ill after an incubation period of 2-5 days.

Symptoms

Reduced hatching rates, hatching of weak chicks, movement disorders, diarrhoea, cramps, blindness.

Therapy

The basis of control is the identification and eradication of salmonella carriers.

Prevention

Establishment and maintenance of pathogen-free flocks

Situation in Austria

Through consistent control, chicken typhus, pullorum disease and arizonosis have been pushed back in Austria. Chicken typhus, pullorum disease and arizonosis are notifiable in Austria according to the Poultry Hygiene Ordinance.

Professional information

Pullorum disease results in reduced hatching rates and hatching of weak chicks. The yolk sac regresses with a delay. Increased urate excretion led to the disease name "white chick dysentery". Chicken typhus can also be peracute in laying hens. Arizonosis causes high chick losses, movement disorders, diarrhea, yolk sac persistence, convulsions, conjunctivitis, and blindness in turkeys and other avian species.The serovar Gallinarum is adapted to chickens. Within the serovars, biovars Gallinarum and Pullorum can be distinguished. Biovar Pullorum causes acute septicaemic infections in chicks up to 3-6 weeks of age. Biovar Gallinarum causes chicken typhus in older chickens. Inhibitor-free culture media are necessary for culturing. Serovars O18:Z4:Z23 and O18:Z4:Z32 of Salmonella enterica subsp. arizonae are responsible for arizonosis.

Diagnostic

Serological tests are suitable for stock examinations. Bacteriological tests are necessary for clarification.

Contact, Forms

Institute for Veterinary Investigations Mödling Robert Koch-Gasse 172340 MödlingTel: +43 50 555-38112Fax: +43 50 555-38529E-Mail: vetmed.moedlingno@Spam@agesno.Spam.at

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