Beans, peas, lentils ...

Changed on: 24.10.2016
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Käferbohnen

The best known pulses cultivated for human consumption and as forage are beans, peas, lentils, lupines and soy bean. These plants have been promoted in organic farming for many years, not only because of their soil-improving properties, but also to meet consumer demand and increase the amount of local protein sources in organic fodder.

Common Botanic Features

A typical feature for the legumes family is the cygomorph (monosymmetric with only two symmetrical halves in one plane), papilionaceous flower. Its corolla consists of a banner (central, [upper], larger corolla petal), two wings (two lateral corolla petals) and one pair of keel petals (two [lower] corolla petals fused or stuck together). This boat-shaped structure encloses the androecium (stamen; usually 10 fused to a tube) and the gynoecium (pistils). Several of these papilionaceous flowers make up more or less large racemes, umbels or ears.

caption
Käferbohnen

The best known pulses cultivated for human consumption and as forage are beans, peas, lentils, lupines and soy bean. These plants have been promoted in organic farming for many years, not only because of their soil-improving properties, but also to meet consumer demand and increase the amount of local protein sources in organic fodder.

Common Botanic Features

A typical feature for the legumes family is the cygomorph (monosymmetric with only two symmetrical halves in one plane), papilionaceous flower. Its corolla consists of a banner (central, [upper], larger corolla petal), two wings (two lateral corolla petals) and one pair of keel petals (two [lower] corolla petals fused or stuck together). This boat-shaped structure encloses the androecium (stamen; usually 10 fused to a tube) and the gynoecium (pistils). Several of these papilionaceous flowers make up more or less large racemes, umbels or ears.

Occurrence

The Phaesolus bean has its origin in Mesoamerica and South America and has been cultivated for approximately 5,000 years.

Vicia faba, also known as broad bean or faba bean, is originates from the Mediterranean region.

The pea, Pisum sativum, originated from the Middle East the Mediterranean region and is one of the oldest cultivated plants.

The home of the original soy bean, Glycine soja or Glycine ussuriensis, is East Asia.
Most lupines originally come from the Mediterranean region.

The lentil, Lens culinaris, originated from Asia Minor and is cultivated predominantly in Turkey, India and Canada at present.

Chickpeas are native to Asia Minor and are mainly cultivated in India and Pakistan today.
Peanuts originated from South America. Nowadays they are predominantly grown in the US, Brazil, Argentina, Senegal and Sudan.

Cultivation in Austria

The cultivation of broad or faba beans increased to 10,780 ha or 41 % in 2015, compared to 2014 (7,661 ha). Field peas were cultivated on 7,274 ha in 2015, 6 % excess than in 2014 (6,863 ha).

The cultivation of soy beans has increased continuously in Austria as a result of higher demand for GMO-free and regional products. Soy bean cultivation rose by almost 30 % in 2015 compared to 2014 (2015: 56,895 ha; 2014: 43,832 ha). At 2,067 ha, a total of 636 ha (+44.4 %) more agricultural area was used for lentils, chickpeas and vetches in 2014. In the category “other legumes” (incl. the mixed field cultivation of pulses and cereals) there was an increase of 216 ha (+7.6 %) to 3,057 ha. Vetches, sweet peas and sweet lupines were cultivated on 5,234 ha in 2014 and 5,519 ha (+5 %) in 2015, according to Statistic Austria.

History

Beans of the genus Phaesolus were already in use in the New World 8,000 years ago. In addition to maize, pumpkins and amaranth, they became one of the most important foodstuffs in Central and South America at a very early stage.


The earliest discoveries of field beans came from the Mediterranean region and the Middle East and were dated between 6,500-6,000 BC. Historical finds also point to beans of the genus Vigna having been cultivated by the Egyptians around 2,500 BC.

Wild peas were already found in Stone Age settlements dating to 7,800 to 5,300 BC in the Middle East, southern Turkey and eastern Greece. Lupines had already been used in the Mediterranean countries during the Egyptian, Greek and Roman eras.

Soy bean was cultivated in Asia as early as 800 to 700 BC.

Lentils originated in Asia Minor, where they were already in use 7,000 years ago.
Finds of cultivated chickpeas dating back 8,000 years point to their cultivation in Asia Minor during the Neolithic Age.

Peanuts originated in South America, where they had been cultivated as early as 950 BC.

Species

Species

Beans


The common term "bean" refers to several species of various genera (e.g. phaesolus, vicia, vigna). However, it is mostly used to describe the various species of Phaesolus, mainly the French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and the runner bean (Phaseolus coccineus L.).

Phaseolus Beans
Phaseolus acutifolius A. GrayTepary beans
Phaseolus coccineus L.Scarlet runner bean, runner bean, multiflora bean
Phaseolus lunatus L.Lima bean, butter bean, sieva bean
Phaseolus vulgaris L.Garden bean, green bean, string bean, haricot bean

  

Vicia beans
Vicia faba L.Broad bean, fava bean, field bean, horse bean, bell bean, English bean
Vicia sativa L.Common vetch, garden vetch

  

Vigna beans
Vigna aconitifolia (Jacq.) MarechalMat bean, moth bean
Vigna angularis (Willd.) Ohwi & H. OhashiAdzuki bean
Vigna caracalla (L.) Verdc.Snail bean, snail vine
Vigna mungo (L.) HepperMungo bean, black gram
Vigna radiata (L.) R. WilczekMung bean, green gram
Vigna umbellata (Thunb.) Ohwi & H. OhashiRice bean
Vigna unguiculata subsp. cylindrica (L.) Verdc.Catjang bean
Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis (L.) Verdc.Asparagus bean, yardlong bean
Vigna unguiculata subsp. unguiculata (L.) Walp.Cow bean

  

Other beans
Canavalia ensiformis (L.) DC.Jack bean
Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (L.) Taub.Guar bean, cluster bean
Macroptilium atropurpureum (DC.) Urb.Purple bush-bean
Macroptilium lathyroides (L.) Urb.Phasey bean
Macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam.) Verdc.Horse gram, Madras gram
Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC.Velvet bean (tropical forage crop)
Lablab purpureus (L.) SweetLablab, hyacinthbean, Indian bean

  

Egyptian bean

Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (L.) DC.Winged bean, Goa bean
Pueraria montana (Lour.) Merr.Kudzu

 

Lentils

Lens culinaris Medik.Lentil
Vicia articulata Hornem.Bard vetch
Vicia ervilia (L.) Willd.Ervil, bitter vetch

 

Peas

Pisum sativum subsp. sativum L. var. sativumGarden pea, English pea
Pisum sativum subsp. sativum L.  var. arvense (L.) Poir.Austrian winter pea
Pisum sativum subsp. elatius (M.Bieb.) Asch. & Graebn.Wild pea

 

Chickpeas  

Cicer arietinum L.

Chickpea

 

Sweet peas, other peas

Lathyrus sativus L.Indian pea, white pea (cultivated as food plant in Central, Southern and Eastern Europe)
Lathyrus cicera L.Red pea (Southern and Mediterranean Europe)
Lathyrus latifolius L.Everlasting pea, perennial pea (as fodder)
Lathyrus ochrus (L.) DCCyprus vetch (Mediterranean Europe – mainly as fodder)
Lathyrus sylvestris L.Flat pea (as fodder)
Lathyrus tuberosus L.Tuberous pea
Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.Pigeon pea

 

 

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